Economía china creció 7,7% en el 2013

BEIJING (AP) — El crecimiento económico de China perdió fuerza en el último trimestre del 2013 y al parecer se contraerá aún más, presionando a sus líderes para que apuntalen la expansión mientras tratan de adoptar amplias reformas.

El crecimiento general del año fue del 7,7%, misma cifra que en 2012, con lo que se iguala el peor desempeño económico anual desde 1999, indicaron el lunes las estadísticas.

Esas cifras parecen enmascarar un deterioro mucho mayor en el último trimestre del año. La producción fabril, las exportaciones e inversiones se contrajeron. De trimestre a trimestre, el crecimiento económico bajó al 1,8% frente al periodo anterior del 2,2%.

"La economía se está desacelerando rápidamente y eso aumentó en este trimestre", dijo el economista Dariusz Kowalczyk, de la firma Credit Agricole CIB.

Esa debilidad podría obligar a Beijing a realizar inversiones estatales para fomentar la expansión. Ello aumentaría la deuda pública que alarmó ya la vía tomada por el sistema financiero de China y podría dificultar la orientación a un crecimiento sostenible basado en el consumo interno.

El crecimiento de China sigue siendo mucho más sólido que el de Estados unidos, Japón o Europa. Empero, la súbita contracción de los robustos índices de la pasada década planteó el riesgo de eliminación de puestos de trabajo y aumentaría los desafíos encarados por el Partido Comunista en su intento de equilibrar la economía y hacerla menos dependiente del comercio e inversiones.

"La acumulación de problemas a largo plazo no ha disminuido y los cimientos de la estabilización económica y la recuperación siguen consolidándose", dijo el comisionado de la gubernamental Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas Ma Jiantang, en una conferencia de prensa.

La contracción de la demanda global de las exportaciones chinas obligó a Beijing a adoptar un modesto plan de estímulo a mediados del 2013 basado en mayores gastos en la construcción ferroviaria y otras obras públicas. El crecimiento se aceleró del 7,5% en el segundo trimestre al 7,8% el siguiente, pero descendió al agotarse ese gasto.

Desde entonces, los líderes chinos dijeron que poco es lo que podrá hacer un estímulo adicional para fomentar el crecimiento y las mejoras procederán de reformas a largo plazo.

El Fondo Monetario Internacional pronosticó que este año China crecerá 7,6% pero analistas del sector privado estiman que el país crecerá al 7,2%, lo que sería el peor desempeño económico de China desde 1990, cuando el crecimiento fue de apenas 3,8%.

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Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas de China: www.stats.gov.cn

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